This coffee flavor wheel was developed by Counter Culture Coffee and is a great resource to identify the types of flavors you might find in coffee. You can see it's layed out by categories and sub-categories that lead to a specific flavor you might be able to taste or smell in coffee.
For example, you may taste orange in a cup of coffee. Of course orange is in the citrus family, and can also be traced to the fruit category. Using this wheel lets you track the unique flavors you are tasting.
Coffee Taster's Flavor Wheel